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Finding fast-chargers for 26.4 million EVs

Written by: Alexa Stone

In late 2021, 2.4 million Electric Vehicles (EVs) travelled U.S. streets and roadways. Many drew their power from chargers installed in home garages where they could recharge overnight. Those chargers, plus available public chargers, met “early adapter” needs to power a daily commute plus local errands. At vacation time, many EVs would remain garaged while gas-powered SUVs travelled the 220,000-miles of national highways.

Robinson Charging Hub, now under construction in Orlando
Facilities like this charging hub, now under construction near I-4 in Orlando, will be required near highways nationwide. — Orlando Utilities Commission image

Commercial and federal fleets followed a similar pattern. EVs were replacing sedans and light trucks, but only if the daily mileage need was limited. More often, fleets remained petrol-powered as 290 million private, commercial, and government vehicles burned ever-increasing quantities of diesel and gasoline. That exhaust has sent an annual 600 million metric tons of CO2 into the ever-warming atmosphere.

The experience of climate catastrophe — plus predictions of further global impact — have triggered political debates, denials, and goal setting. Documented shortfalls and published predictions of missed goals also triggered abundant federal and state funding. The unrelenting increase in global temperatures increases the need to put those funds into action!

An estimated 26.4 million EVs — 25% of new cars — will be on America’s roads by 2030[1]. As the EV count grows tenfold, the number of charging locations and the number of charge points per location must grow.

TODAY’S INFRASTRUCTURE

The first gasoline-powered vehicle built in the U.S. traveled America’s dusty roads in 1893. Now, after 130 years, the petroleum infrastructure of more than 145,000 filling stations is available at interchanges and intersections nationwide.[2]

Clearly, the EV infrastructure must expand significantly faster. In November, 2022, an estimated 52,375 charging stations were available to the public.[3] Today’s travellers can reference an online map[4] showing their locations and listing hours of operation.

TOMORROW’S NEEDS

To build-out a nationwide network of charging stations, questions of where, what, and how must be addressed. Different types EV charging stations will be needed at specific places, for specific types of driver.

Where will chargers be needed?

At these locations: Charging will be needed for:
  • Near highway exits
  • Long-distance drivers
  • In municipal garages and
    parking lots
  • At office parks
  • Commuters
  • Apartment dwellers
  • Anyone without a
    charging station at home
  • Curbside in cities and towns
  • At malls and shopping centers
  • Shoppers
  • At warehouses
  • Delivery vans and trucks
  • At factories and other industrial sites
  • Fleet vehicles
  • Along bus routes
  • In city garages
  • City buses

What types of charger should be installed?

One size does NOT fit all, but we’re hearing good news that standardization is underway.

AC chargers Direct Current (DC) fast chargers
  • Chevy Volt
  • Nissan LEAF
  • Tesla Model S
  • Prius (newer models)
  • An open international standard
  • Most automakers will use it in the U.S.
  • Nissan LEAF
  • Some Mitsubishi models
  • Early Kia and Hyundai
  • Developed by Tesla
  • Intended for all EVs
  • Most widely used charger in the U.S.

How will this infrastructure be funded?

The $5 billion National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (NEVI) Formula Program has been approved to fund 500,000 EV chargers.[5] Dozens of additional federal and state programs are already writing grants, guaranteeing loans, and providing tax credits.

Program Projects supported
Vehicle Technologies Office Funding Opportunities Infrastructure for light duty, transit, and commercial EV
State Energy Program Infrastructure for light duty, transit, and commercial EV
Surface Transportation Block Grant Program Infrastructure for light duty, transit, and commercial EV
Highway Infrastructure Program Infrastructure for light duty, transit, and commercial EV
Puerto Rico Highway Program Infrastructure for light duty, transit, and commercial EV
Territorial Highway Program Infrastructure for light duty, transit, and commercial EV
Federal Lands Transportation Program Infrastructure for light duty, transit, and commercial EV
Federal Land Access Program Infrastructure for light duty, transit, and commercial EV
Rebuilding American Infrastructure with Sustainability and Equity Infrastructure for light duty, transit, and commercial EV
Airport Zero Emission Vehicle Infrastructure for light duty and transit EV
Voluntary Airport Low Emissions Program Infrastructure for light duty and transit EV
Accelerating Innovative Mobility Infrastructure for light duty and transit EV
FY2020 EDA Public Works and Economic Adjustment Assistance Program   Infrastructure for light duty and commercial EV
Americas Marine Highway Program Infrastructure for light duty and commercial EV
Title XVII Renewable Energy and Efficient Energy Projects Infrastructure for light duty EV
Port Infrastructure Development Program Infrastructure for light duty EV
Public Transportation on Indian Reservations Program; Tribal Transit Program Infrastructure for transit EV
Tribal Transit Formula Grants Infrastructure for transit EV
Formula Grants for Rural Areas Infrastructure for transit EV
Enhanced Mobility of Seniors & Individuals with Disabilities Infrastructure for transit EV
Urbanized Area Formula Funding Infrastructure for transit EV
National Highway Freight Program Infrastructure for commercial EV
Planning and Localities Technical Assistance Program Infrastructure planning
Research and National Technical Assistance Infrastructure planning
State Planning and Research Infrastructure planning
Area of Persistent Poverty Program Infrastructure planning
Public Transportation Innovation Infrastructure planning
Metropolitan Planning Infrastructure planning
Rural Transportation Assistance Program Infrastructure planning
Congestion Mitigation & Air Quality Improvement Infrastructure for light duty, transit, and commercial EV
Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment Infrastructure for light duty and transit EV
National Highway Performance Program Infrastructure for light duty and transit EV
Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing (ATVM) Loan Program Infrastructure for light duty EV
Property Assessed Clean Energy Programs Infrastructure for light duty EV
Integrated Mobility Innovation Infrastructure for transit EV
Grants for Buses and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Infrastructure for transit EV
Low or No Emission Vehicle Program Infrastructure for transit EV
Grants for Buses and Bus Facilities Formula Program Infrastructure for transit EV
Build to Scale Program Infrastructure for commercial EV
National Grants: Diesel Emissions Reduction Act Infrastructure for transit and commercial EV
Tribal and Insular Area Grants: Diesel Emissions Reduction Act Infrastructure for transit and commercial EV
School Bus Rebates: Diesel Emissions Reduction Act Infrastructure for transit EV
State Grants: Diesel Emissions Reduction Act Infrastructure for transit and commercial EV
Alternative Fuel Vehicle Refueling Property Credit Infrastructure for light duty EV
Small Business Innovation Research Infrastructure planning
Small Business Technology Transfer Infrastructure planning
Urban Agriculture and Innovative Production Infrastructure for light duty and commercial EV
Environmentl Quality Incentives Program Infrastructure for light duty and commercial EV
Conservation Innovation Grants Infrastructure for light duty and commercial EV
Rural Placemaking Innovation Challenge Infrastructure for light duty and transit EV
Rural Economic Development Grant Program Infrastructure for light duty and commercial EV
Renewable Energy Development Assistance Infrastructure planning
Community Facilities Grant Program Infrastructure for light duty EV
Rural Business Development Grants Infrastructure for light duty and commercial EV
Rural Energy for America ProgramGuaranteed Loans Infrastructure for commercial EV
Community Facilities Direct Loan Program Infrastructure for light duty and transit EV
Rural Economic Development Loan Program Infrastructure for light duty and commercial EV
Intermediary Relending Program Infrastructure for light duty and commercial EV
Business
& Industry Loan Guarantees
Infrastructure for light duty EV
Denali Commission High Energy Cost Grants Infrastructure for light duty EV
High Energy Cost Grants Infrastructure for light duty EV
Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Infrastructure for light duty EV
Rural Energy Savings Program Infrastructure for light duty EV
Distributed Generation Energy Project Financing Infrastructure for light duty EV
Electric Infrastructure Loan & Loan Guarantee Program Infrastructure for light duty EV

The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has prequalified ecoPreserve to support EV infrastructure planning and policy development across Florida where we will be a subcontractor on FDOT’s multi-year EV consulting contract.

It’s exciting (and encouraging!) to see the 2030 EV infrastructure under construction along highways and streets, and at businesses and parking facilities nationwide. Will your organization or community be part of that? We are here to help plan EV and charger initiatives and to obtain the funding for them! A free consultation call can be scheduled online.

SOURCES:

[1] EEI.org — Edison Electric Institute
[2] API.org — American Petroleum Institute
[3] USAFacts.org
[4] ARCGIS.com — Interactive map showing every EV charging station in the U.S.
[5] Route-Fifty.com
[6] Transportation.gov — EV Infrastructure Planning Toolkit (U.S. Department of Transportation)
[7] Transportation.gov — EV Infrastructure Funding Matrix (U.S. Department of Transportation)

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